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Python Zero to Hero

### DAY 1
print("Welcome")

val1 = 5
#val1 is a variable in this case
print("val1")
print("Value of variable val1 =",val1)

#type() - it gives the datatype of variable
print(type(val1)) # <class 'int'> integer: nondecimal value- -5, -99,0,9999999

val1 = 5.8
print("Value of variable val1 =",val1)
print(type(val1)) # <class 'float'> float: number with decimal value- -5.0, -99.1,0.0,9999999.5

val1 = 5j #it is same as i of Maths, square root of -1
print("Value of variable val1 =",val1)
print(type(val1)) # <class 'complex'>
print(val1 * val1)

val1 = "Good evening"
print("Value of variable val1 =",val1)
print(type(val1)) #<class 'str'> string - all kinds of text
val1 = "55"
val2 = 55
val3 = 44;val4 = "44";print(val1 + val4);
print(val2 + val3)

val1 = True #/ False
print("Value of variable val1 =",val1)
print(type(val1)) #<class 'bool'> - boolean just 2 values: True and False

# input() - used to read value from the user

name = input("Enter your name: ")
print(name)

## DAY 2: 11 DEC 2022
name = input("Enter your name: ") #automatically its gets converted into str - implicit conversion
marks1 = input("Enter marks in Subject 1: ")
marks1 = int(marks1) #explicit conversion
marks2 = int(input("Enter marks in Subject 2: "))
marks3 = int(input("Enter marks in Subject 3: "))
print(type(name))
print(type(marks1))

sum = marks1 + marks2 + marks3
avg = sum / 3
print(name, "scored a total of",sum,"marks at an average of",avg)

# f string - format string
print(f"{name} scored a total of {sum} marks at an average of {avg:.2f}%")

# <class 'str'> str()
# <class 'int'> int()
# <class 'float'> float()
# <class 'complex'> complex()
# <class 'bool'> bool()

length = int(input("Enter the length of the rectangle: "))
breadth = int(input("Enter the breadth of the rectangle: "))
area = length * breadth
perimeter = 2* (length + breadth)
print(f"The rectangle with dimensions {length} and {breadth} has an area of {area} and perimeter of {perimeter}")

#Operators
#math operations - Arithmetic operations
val1 = 10
val2 = 3
print(val1 + val2)
print(val1 - val2)
print(val1 * val2)
print(val1 / val2)
print(val1 ** val2) #power of val2
print(val1 // val2) #integer division -will result in integer only
print(val1 % val2) #modulo - remainder
print(16 ** 0.5)

#Comparison operators: == != < <= > >=
# input can be anything but output will always be BOOL value
a=10
b=3
c=10
print(a==b) #False
print(a!=b) #True
print(a==c) #True
print(a!=c) #False

print(a>b) #True
print(a>=c) #True
print(a<=c) #True
print(a<c) #False

#logical operators : AND OR NOT
#input has to be bool and output is also bool
#prediction; Sachin and Sehwag will open the batting for India
#actual: Sachin and Dravid opened the batting for India
# result - prediction is wrong

#prediction; Sachin or Sehwag will open the batting for India
#actual: Sachin and Dravid opened the batting for India
# result - prediction is Correct
print("Logical Operator:")
print(5>3 and 2 <6 or 8==9 and 7!=9 or 5!=7 and 10==10 or 4<5)

#T and T or F and T or T and T or T

#DAY 2: 12 DEC 2022
#########################
## Quadratic equation is of form: ax^2 + bx + c

# Discriminant: D = b^2-4ac
# (-b +/- sq root(D)) / 2a

# 3 x2 +x+5 = 0
a=3
b=1
c=5
D = b**2 - 4 * a * c
sol1 = (-b - D**0.5)/(2*a)
sol2 = (-b + D**0.5)/(2*a)

if D<0:
print("Discriminat: ",D)
print("Discriminant is -ve hence we have imaginary values for the x")
print(f"The value of x for the given quadratic equation is {sol1} and {sol2}")

#Prob 2: 2x2 -12x - 54 = 0
#sol1 = -3, 18 +36 - 54 = 0
#sol2 = 9: 162 -108 -54 = 0
a = 2
b = -12
c = -54
D = b**2 - 4 * a * c
sol1 = (-b - D**0.5)/(2*a)
sol2 = (-b + D**0.5)/(2*a)
if D<0:
print("Discriminant is -ve hence we have imaginary values for the x")
elif D>0:
print("Dicriminant is real and has 2 unique solutions")
print("Discriminat: ", D)
print(f"The value of x for the given quadratic equation is {sol1} and {sol2}")
else:
print("Dicriminant is real")
print("Dicriminant is real and has only one unique solution")
print(f"The value of x for the given quadratic equation is {sol1}")

number =-6
if number<0:
print("Its a negative number")
elif number>0:
print("Its positive number")
if number %2==0:
print("Its an even number")
if number%3==0:
print("The number is divisble by both 2 and 3")
else:
print("The number is divisble by 2 but not by 3")
else:
print("Its an odd number")
if number%3==0:
print("The number is divisble by only 3")
else:
print("The number is neither divisble by 2 nor by 3")
else:
print("Its zero")

marks1 =98
marks2 = 88
marks3 = 99
sum= marks1 + marks2 + marks3
avg = sum/3
print("Average marks obstained is :",avg)
if avg >=80:
print("Grade A")
if avg >=90:
print("You win President award")
elif avg >=70:
print("Grade B")
elif avg >=60:
print("Grade C")
elif avg >=50:
print("Grade D")
elif avg >=40:
print("Grade E")
else:
print("Grade F")

### DAY 4:
###################
#LOOPS - While loop - until condition is true
choice = "y"
while choice=="y" or choice=="Y":
print("Hello")
choice = input("Please type y to continue or anyother key to stop: ")



# For loop -
#range(a,b,c) : a=start value (inclusive), b=ending value(exclusive), c=increment value
# range() generates a range of values
# range(3,8,2) = 3,5,7
# range(3,9,2) = 3,5,7
# range(a,b) => c is default 1 (increment is 1)
# range(3,7) => 3, 4,5,6
# range(b) => default a = 0 , default c = 1
# range(4) => 0,1,2,3

for i in range(4):
print("Hello: ",i)

for i in range(3,8,2):
print("Hello: ",i)

print("hello",end=" ")
print("how",end=" ")
print("are",end=" ")
print("you")

for i in range(5):
print("*")

for i in range(5):
print("*",end=" ")
print()
start = 1
end = 10
for i in range(start,end+1):
if i ==end:
print(i)
else:
print(i,end=", ")

for j in range(5):
for i in range(5):
print("*", end=" ")
print()

for j in range(5):
for i in range(j + 1):
print("*", end=" ")
print()

for j in range(5):
for i in range(5 - j):
print("*", end=" ")
print()

k = 1
for j in range(5):
for i in range(k):
print("*", end=" ")
print()
k += 1 # k = k+1

### Assignment
'''
*
* *
* * * *
* *


'''

### DAY 5: 14 DEC 2022
### ###############
#While
# if marks <0 and >100 it should ignore it


while True:
name = input("Enter the name of the student: ")
sum = 0
sub_count = 0
while sub_count <=2:
marks = int(input("Enter marks in subject "+str(sub_count+1)+": ",))
if marks >100 or marks <0:
print("Invalid marks try again!")
continue
sub_count+=1
sum+=marks
avg = sum/3
print(f"The total marks obtained is {sum} and the average is {avg:.2f}")
choice = input("Please enter y to continue or anyother key to stop: ")
if choice !="y" and choice!="Y": #y
break #it throws you out of the current loop

#continue is a command that will take you to the beginning of the loop
#WAP to guess the number between 1 and 100
num = 50
count = 0
max_try = 10
while True:
guess=int(input("Guess the number: "))

if guess<0 or guess>100:
print("Invalid option try again!")
continue
count+=1
if guess == num:
print(f"Congratulations, you have guessed it right in {count} steps!")
break
elif guess < num:
print("The actual number is higher!")
else:
print("The actual number is lower!")
if count >=max_try:
print("You have reached the maximum tries. Please stop")
break

#WAP to guess the number between 1 and 100
import random
num = random.randint(1,100)
count = 0
max_try = 10
while True:
guess=int(input("Guess the number: "))

if guess<0 or guess>100:
print("Invalid option try again!")
continue
count+=1
if guess == num:
print(f"Congratulations, you have guessed it right in {count} steps!")
break
elif guess < num:
print("The actual number is higher!")
else:
print("The actual number is lower!")
if count >=max_try:
print("You have reached the maximum tries. Please stop")
break

####
number = 50
steps=0
print("Number Guessing Game! Guess the Number Between 1 and 100.")
while True:
check = int(input("Enter the value to check: "))
if check<1 or check>100:
print("Invalid Value. Please Try Again!")
continue
steps+=1
if check==number:
print(f"Value Matched! You got it right in {steps} steps.")
break
elif check <number:
print("Value is smaller. Please Try Again!")
else:
print("Value is greater. Please Try Again!")

list_of_value = [5,10,15,20,25,30,35] #LIST
print(type(list_of_value))
print(list_of_value)
print(list_of_value[2])

l1 = [5,10,15,20,25,30,35]
print(l1*3)

#append
list_of_value.append(45)
list_of_value.insert(2,12)
print(list_of_value)
#insert

# Battleship Challenge
import random
battle_pattern = []

total_rows = 5
total_cols = 5
for i in range(total_rows):
battle_pattern.append(['0 ']*5)

# created a function named display_battle() - user defined function
def display_battle(pattern):
for p in pattern:
print(" ".join(p))

display_battle(battle_pattern)
missle_row = random.randint(0,total_rows-1)
missle_col = random.randint(0,total_cols-1)
print(f"HINT: Missile is at Row: {missle_row} column {missle_col}")

#Try to attack
for y in range(4):
pred_row = int(input("Input the x corrodinate: "))
pred_col = int(input("Input the y corrodinate: "))

if pred_row == missle_row and pred_col ==missle_col:
print("Congratulations ! Missle destroyed")
break
elif pred_row >4 or pred_col > 4:
print("What are you doing? Where are you shooting?")
elif battle_pattern[pred_row][pred_col] =="X ":
print("You have already got that wrong! A chance wasted!")
else:
print("Missle not found at the location")
battle_pattern[pred_row][pred_col] = "X "
display_battle(battle_pattern)


#While loop

while True:
sum = 0
for i in range(3):
marks1 = int(input("Enter the marks: "))
sum+=marks1
avg = sum/3
print("Average of marks is:",avg)
ch = input("Press Y to continue or any other key to stop: ")
if ch!='y':
break #it breaks the loop - throw you out of the loop

# we find sum of all positive numbers that are entered, enter -999 to stop accepting

sum=0
while True:
value = int(input("Enter the value:"))
if value==-999:
print("Sum of all the positive numbers that you have entered = ",sum)
break
if value<=0:
print("Negative value hence ignoring!")
continue #you will be pushed to the beginning of the loop
sum+=value

#Strings
val1 = "Hello" # str with "
print(type(val1))
val1 = 'Welcome'
print(type(val1))
val1 = '''How are you?
where are you?
How long will you be there?'''
print(type(val1))
print(val1)
val1 = """I am fine
I am in your city
I will be here for next 7 days"""
print(type(val1))
print(val1)

# What's your name?
val2 = "What's your name?"
print(val2)
# He asked,"Where are you going?"
val2='He asked,"Where are you going?"'
print(val2)
# He asked,"What's your name?"

print('''He asked,"What's your name?"''')
print("He asked,\"What's your name?\"")

val1 = "Good"
val2 = "Evening"
print(val1+val2)
print(val1*3)
sum=0
for i in val2:
if i=='a' or i=="e" or i=='i' or i=="o" or i=="u":
sum+=1
print(f"Given text has {sum} vowels")

sum=0
for i in val2.lower(): #lower() converts into lowercase
if i=='a' or i=="e" or i=='i' or i=="o" or i=="u":
sum+=1
print(f"Given text has {sum} vowels")

#in - membership test - left side value is present in the right side or not
sum=0
for i in val2.lower(): #lower() converts into lowercase
if i in "aeiou": #True only if i value is present in right side text
sum+=1
print(f"Given text has {sum} vowels")

text1 = "Hello all"
#len() - counts the number of characters
print("Total characters in text1 is",len(text1))

#indexing - extracting portion of the data - subset
# [] is used for indexing
print(text1[0]) #first member of text1
print(text1[2]) #third member of text1
print(text1[len(text1)-1]) #last member
print(text1[len(text1)-3]) #third last member

print(text1[-1]) #last member
print(text1[-3]) #third last member

###### 17 DECEMBER 2022 ##########
str1 = 'Hello'
str2 = "Good"
str3 = '''How are you?
Where are you?'''
str4 = """I am fine"""
str5 = "What's your name?"
print(str5)
str6 = 'He asked,"How are you?"'
print(str6)

#He asked,"What's your name?"
print('''He asked,"What's your name?"''')
print('He asked,"What\'s your name?"')

text1 = "Good Evening"
print(text1[0])
print(text1[-1])
print(text1[1:4]) #from second character to 5th (upto)
tot_chars = len(text1)
print(text1[tot_chars-3:tot_chars]) # 9 to 12
print(text1[tot_chars-3:])
print(text1[:])
print(text1[-11:-8])
print(text1[-3:])

print("Good"+"Morning"*3)
for i in text1:
print(i,end="")
print()
txt1 = "how are you?"
print(txt1.lower())
print(txt1.upper())

print(txt1.islower())

txt3="GoOD mOrNIng"
txt4 = ""
#lowercase to upper and uppercase to lowe
for i in txt3:
if i.islower():
txt4=txt4+i.upper()
else:
txt4 = txt4 + i.lower()
print(txt4)
#want to count the number of spaces a text has
txt3="Go OD mOrN I n g "
count=0
for i in txt3:
if i.isspace():
count+=1

print("Total spaces: ",count)
cnt = txt3.count("O")
print("Total spaces = ",cnt)

cnt = txt3.lower().count("o")
print("Total spaces = ",cnt)
txt4 = "How are you doing and where are you going"
print(txt4.split())
txt6 = " - ".join(['How', 'are', 'you', 'doing', 'and', 'where', 'are', 'you', 'going'])

print(txt6)

marks = input("Enter marks: ")
if marks.isdigit():
marks = int(marks)
else:
print("Invalid marks")

# username can have only alphabet or number
marks = input("Enter username: ")
if marks.isalnum():
print("Username accepted")
else:
print("Invalid username")

######### 28 DEC 2022 - LIST
#List
l1 = [50,30,40.5,"Hello",[4,6,8]]
print(type(l1))
print(len(l1))
print(l1[0])
print(type(l1[0]))
l2 = l1[-1]
print(type(l2))
print(l1[-1][1])
print([10,20,30]+[4,5,6])
print([10,20,30] * 3)

a=5
#print(a[0])
val = [10,20,30]
for i in val:
print(i)

#methods of list
val = [10,20,30]
val.append(40)
val[0] = 100
print(val)

str1="hello"
#str1[0]= "H"
str1 = str1.upper()
print(str1)

# strings are immutable whereas Lists are mutable (editable)
val.insert(1,200)
print(val)
val.pop(2) #takes index
print(val)
val.remove(200)
print(val)
val1 = [6,12,18,24]
val2 = val+val1
print(val2)
val.extend(val1) # val = val + val1
print(val)

for i in range(3):
val.pop(1)
print(val)
val = [100, 30, 40, 6, 12, 18, 24]
print(val)
#remove position 2,4,6 = [2,3,5] [6,4,2]
for i in [6,4,2]:
val.pop(i)
print(val)
val = [100, 30, 40, 6, 12, 18, 24]
print(val)
#remove values 100, 40, 12
for i in [100, 40, 12]:
val.remove(i)
print(val)
val = [100, 30, 40, 6, 12, 18, 24]
val.sort()
val.reverse()
print(val)

## get marks of 5 subjects and do the sum and avg
master_list = []
while True:
sum = 0
marks_list = []
for i in range(5):
marks = int(input("Enter the marks in subject "+str(i+1)+": "))
sum+=marks
marks_list.append(marks)
avg = sum/5
print(f"Marks entered are: {marks_list} \nThe total marks obtained is {sum} and average is {avg}")
ch = bool(input("Enter any key to continue or blank to stop: "))
master_list.append(marks_list)
if not ch:
break


print("Master List: ",master_list)


'''
[[99, 88, 77, 66, 55],
[75, 86, 97, 58, 69],
[59, 74, 68, 78, 76]]

list[0][0]
'''
master_list = [[99, 88, 77, 66, 55], [75, 86, 97, 58, 69], [59, 74, 68, 78, 76]]
students = ["Kapil","Sunil","Dhoni"]
subjects = ["English","Hindi","Maths","Science","Social"]

'''
Kapil Sunil Dhoni
English
Hindi
Maths
Science
Social
'''

print(end="\t\t")
for i in range(len(students)):
print(students[i],end="\t\t")
print()

#col_ind = 0
for col_ind in range(5):
print(subjects[col_ind],end="\t")
for row_ind in range(3):
print(master_list[row_ind][col_ind],end="\t\t\t")
print()


################
'''
Input:
Year: 2022
Month: 12
Date: 19
Output:
19th December 2022
'''
Months = ['January','February','March','April','May','June','July','August','September',
'October','November','December']
ending = ['st','nd','rd'] + 17*['th'] + ['st','nd','rd'] + 7*['th'] + ['st']
year= input("Year: ")
month_num = int(input("Month: "))
date_num = int(input("Date: "))
result = str(date_num)+ ending[date_num-1]+' '+Months[month_num-1]+' '+year
print(result)

# Tuple
#Same as list - linear but difference is its immutable
t1 = (2,4,6,7,8,9,2,4,2,4,2,4)
print(type(t1))
print(t1.count(2))
print(t1.index(6))
print(t1[-1])
for i in t1:
print(i, end=", ")
print()
#Lists can be converted to Tuple and vice versa
t1 = list(t1)
print(type(t1))
t1 = tuple(t1)

t1 = ()
t1 = (1,)
print(type(t1))
t1 = (1,2,3,4,5) #packing
a,b,c,d,e = t1 #unpacking

val1 = (3,4,6)
val2 = (3,1,88)


#packing and unpacking

#Dictionary
details = {
"name": "Sachin T", "Runs": 15000, "Runs_desc": "Too many","City" : "Mumbai"
}
print(type(details))
print(details)
print(details["City"])
details2 = {
"team1":"Mumbai", "team2":"Mumbai Indias","team3": "India"
}
details.update(details2)
print(details)


## get marks of 5 subjects and do the sum and avg
master_list = {}
while True:
sum = 0
marks_list = []
name=input("Name of the student: ")
for i in range(5):
marks = int(input("Enter the marks in subject "+str(i+1)+": "))
sum+=marks
marks_list.append(marks)
avg = sum/5
print(f"Marks entered are: {marks_list} \nThe total marks obtained is {sum} and average is {avg}")
ch = bool(input("Enter any key to continue or blank to stop: "))
master_list.update({name:marks_list})
if not ch:
break

print("All information: \n",master_list)

t1 = (2,4,6,8)
print(t1)
t1=list(t1)
t1.append(10)
t1 = tuple(t1)
print(t1)

# Dictionary
dict1 = {"name": "Sachin",101: "Mumbai","Teams":["India","Mumbai","Mumbai Indians"]}
dict2 = {"Runs": 15000}
print(type(dict1))
print(dict1['name'])
dict1.update(dict2)
print(dict1)
print(dict1.keys())
for i in dict1.keys():
print(i, "->",dict1[i])

for i,k in dict1.items():
print(i,"->",k)
for j in dict1.values():
print(j,end=", ")
print()
dict1.popitem()
dict1.pop(101)
print(dict1)


boys = {1:"Rohit",2:"Rahul",3:"Kohli", 4:"Surya"}
girls = {11:"Harmanpreet", 21:"Smriti",31:"Poonam",41:"Taniya"}

#equal to = points to same value
dict1 = boys
print(dict1)
#copy - creates duplicate copy
players = dict1.copy()
print(players)
players.update(girls)
print(players)

p_type = []
for i, j in players.items():
if j in boys.values():
p_type.append("Boy")
elif j in girls.values():
p_type.append("Girl")
else:
p_type.append("NA")
print("Final list: ",p_type)

#Set
# D M C K P
# P D M K C
# P P P P P
set1 = {"Pune","Pune","Pune","Pune","Pune"}
print(type(set1))
print(set1)

list1 = [4,5,6,4,5,6,7,8,7,8,8,8,8]
print(list1)
list1 = set(list1)
list1 = list(list1)
print(list1)

#SET THEORY
set1 = {2,4,6,8}
set2 = {1,3,5,7,2,6,8,4}
print(type(set1))
for i in set1:
print(i)

#UNION: combine all the values
print(set1|set2)
print(set1.union(set2))

#INTERSECTION
print(set1 & set2)
print(set1.intersection(set2))

#DIFFERENCE
print(set1 - set2)
print(set1.difference(set2))

print(set2 - set1)
print(set2.difference(set1))

print(set1.symmetric_difference(set2))

print(set2.issuperset(set1))


#Functions: user defined functions
def myfunction1(a,b,c):
"""This is my own function to do something something
to just implement the function concept
@a: just a number
@b: another number
@c: another number
return: it returns the sum of a b and c"""
print(f"a={a}, b={b},c={c}")
print(a+b+c)
return a+b+c

def myfunction2(a,b=100,c=50): #default arguments
print(f"a={a}, b={b},c={c}")
print(a+b+c)

#keyword arguments (non-positional)
def myfunction3(a,b,c):
print(f"a={a}, b={b},c={c}")
print(a+b+c)

print("Here are a list of questions you need to ask:")
output = myfunction1(5,15,25)
print("Result is ",output)

myfunction2(20,30)
myfunction3(c=30,a=20,b=10) #keyword
l1 = [2,4,6]
putput = l1.append(8)
print(putput)
print(l1)

#1 required positional argument
print(myfunction1.__doc__)

import random
word_list = ["hello", "python","computer","india"]
word = random.choice(word_list)
#print(word.find("l"))
display_txt = "* "*len(word)
print("HINT: ",display_txt)
while True:
guess = input("Guess the character (a-z):")
guess = guess[0].lower()
if guess in word:
cnt_guess = word.count(guess)
st = 0
for i in range(cnt_guess):
idx = word.find(guess,st)
#0 -0 1 - 2 2 -4
display_txt = display_txt[:2*idx] + guess + display_txt[2*idx+1:]
st = idx+1
else:
print(f"{guess} not in the given word")
print(display_txt)
if "*" not in display_txt:
print("Congratulations! You have correctly guessed the word")
break

def input_num(n=0):
""" This function take number of elements for the size of list
and then takes the values, and returns list of values after using input"""
list1 = []
for i in range(n):
num = int(input("Enter number "+str(i+1)+": "))
list1.append(num)
return list1

def checkPrime(num):
isPrime = True
for i in range(2,num):
if num%i==0:
isPrime = False
return isPrime

def list_factors(num):
list_all_factors=[]
for i in range(1,num+1):
if num%i==0:
list_all_factors.append(i)
return list_all_factors

def create_fibo(n):
list_fibo = []
prev1,prev2=0,1
for i in range(n):
if i==0:
list_fibo.append(0)

elif i==1:
list_fibo.append(1)

else:
list_fibo.append(prev1+prev2)
prev1,prev2=prev2, prev1+prev2
return list_fibo

def sorting_val(type,*numbers, **address):
numbers=list(numbers)
if type==1: #bubble sort
for i in range(len(numbers)-1):
for j in range(len(numbers)-1-i):
if numbers[j]>numbers[j+1]:
numbers[j],numbers[j+1] = numbers[j+1], numbers[j]
print("Sorted elements are: ",numbers)
print("Address: \n",address)

items = int(input("Enter the number of elements to be declared: "))
values = input_num(items)
for value in values:
res = checkPrime(value)
if res:
print(f"The element {value} is a Prime,")
else:
print(f"The element {value} is not a Prime number.")
print(f"Factors of element {value} are: {list_factors(value)}")

values = create_fibo(items)
print("Values are: ",values)

sorting_val(1,12,5,17,18,7,19,3,4,7,name="Sachin", sports = "Cricket",city="Mumbai")


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