Learning with P
print('hello')

print(5 +3 )
print('5+3=', 5+3)

var1 = 53
print(type(var1)) #<class 'int'> integer
var1 = '53' # str - string
print(type(var1))

var1 = 53.0 #float
print(type(var1))

var1 = 53j #complex
print(type(var1))

var1 = False #
print(type(var1))

count_of_pens = 23 #variable names can only have alphabets, numbers, _
#variable shouldnt begin with a number
cost_each_pen = 21.23
total_cost = cost_each_pen \
* count_of_pens
print('Cost of each pen is',cost_each_pen,"so for",count_of_pens,"pens, "
"total cost would be",total_cost)

#f-string format string
print(f"Cost of each pen is {cost_each_pen} so for {count_of_pens} pens, total cost would be {total_cost:.1f}")

VIDEO 1


###################
player= "Rohit"
country = "India"
position = "Captain"
print(f"The Player {player:<15} plays for the country {country:^15} and is {position:>15} of the team")
player= "Mbangawapo"
country = "Zimbabwe"
position = "Wicketkeeper"
print(f"The Player {player:<15} plays for the country {country:^15} and is {position:>15} of the team")

num1 = 5
num2 = 3
#Arithematic Operations
print(num1 + num2)
print(num1 - num2)
print(num1 * num2)
print(num1 / num2) #float output
print(num1 // num2) #integer division (double division)- integer (int)
print(num1 % num2) #remainder - modulo
print(num1 ** num2) #num1 to the power num2

#post office stamp problem for assignment
length = input("Enter length of the rectangle: ")
length = int(length)
print(type(length))
breadth = int(input("Enter breadth of the rectangle: "))
area = length * breadth
perimeter = 2*(length + breadth)
print(f"The rectangle with length {length} and bread {breadth} has an area of {area} and perimeter of {perimeter}")


#Comparison operators: < > <= >= == !=
#input here is variables, output is always bool value
val1=34
val2=34
print("Is val1 less than val2? ", val1 < val2)
print("Is val1 greater than val2? ", val1 > val2)
print("Is val1 less than or equal to val2? ", val1 <= val2)
print("Is val1 greater than or equal to val2? ", val1 >= val2)
print("Is val1 equal to val2? ", val1 == val2)
print("Is val1 not equal to val2? ", val1 != val2)

#Logical operators: and or not: Input is bool and output is also bool
print(val1 < val2 and val1 > val2 or val1 <= val2 and val1 >= val2 and val1 == val2 or val1 != val2)
#in AND - even if you have one false - o/p is False otherwise True
# in OR - even if you have one True - o/p is True otherwise False
print(not val1==val2)

#membership operator: in, not in
print( 5 in [5,10,15,20])
print("a" not in "ABCDE")

marks1 = int(input("Enter the marks in subject 1: "))
marks2 = int(input("Enter the marks in subject 2: "))
marks3 = int(input("Enter the marks in subject 3: "))
total = marks1 + marks2 + marks3
avg = total / 3

print(f"Total marks obtained is {total} and the average is {avg:.2f}")

#Conditional
num1 = -90
if num1 >0:
print("Number is positive")
print("This is second line of if")

if num1 >0:
print("Number is positive")
else:
print("Number is not positive")

if num1 >0:
print("Number is positive")
elif num1 <0:
print("Number is negative")
else:
print("Its Zero")

avg = 80
'''
avg >= 90: Grade A, 80-90: B, 70-80: C, 60-70: D, 50-60:E, 40-50: F and Grade Failed <40
'''
if avg>=90:
print("Grade: A")
elif avg>=80:
print("Grade: B")
elif avg>=70:
print("Grade: C")
elif avg>=60:
print("Grade: D")
elif avg>=50:
print("Grade: E")

elif avg>=40:
print("Grade: F")

else:
print("Grade: FAILED")

if avg>=40:
print("You have passed")

#print - You have passed for all those who got over 40%
avg=99.1
if avg>=40:
print("You have passed")
if avg >= 90:
print("Grade: A")
if avg >=95:
print("You win President's medal")
if avg>=99:
print("WOW")
elif avg >= 80:
print("Grade: B")
elif avg >= 70:
print("Grade: C")
elif avg >= 60:
print("Grade: D")
elif avg >= 50:
print("Grade: E")
else:
print("Grade: F")

else:
print("Grade: FAILED")

#to evaluate an algorithm - we look at Space complexity and Time complexity
# President medal for >95%

num1 = 78
if num1%2==0:
print("Even")
else:
print("Odd")

age=21
nationality = "USA"
if age>21 and nationality=="USA":
print("Vote")

####### LOOPS - repeatition
# for loop: exactly how manytimes to run the loop
# while loop: condition under which to repeat the loop

# range(a,b,c): a= initial value (including), b=end value (excluding), c= increment
#range(3,12,3): 3,6,9
#range(3,13,3): 3,6,9,12

for i in range(3,16,3):
print("HELLO")
print("i = ",i)
for i in range(5):
print("*",end=' ')
print()

'''
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
'''
for j in range(5):
for i in range(5):
print("*",end=' ')
print()

'''
*
* *
* * *
* * * *
* * * * *
'''
for j in range(5):
for i in range(j+1):
print("*",end=' ')
print()

'''
* * * * *
* * * *
* * *
* *
*
'''
for j in range(5):
for i in range(5-j):
print("*",end=' ')
print()

'''
*
* *
* * *
* * * *
* * * * *
'''
for j in range(5):
for i in range(5-j-1):
print(" ",end='')
for k in range(j+1):
print("*",end=' ')
print()


n=5
m=1
for j in range(1,11):
for i in range(1,11):
print(f"{i:>2} * {j:>2} = {j*i:>3}",end=" ")
print()

#### WHILE Loops: no fixed times - based on some condition
i=1
while i<=10:
print(i)
i+=1

#print hello untill user wants
ch='y'
while ch=='y':
print("HELLO")
ch=input("Press y to continue, anyother key to stop: ")
import random
num = random.randint(1,100)
print("==> ",num)
l1="="
total_attempts,max,min=0,0,9999
n=250000
pc = n//100
for i in range(n):
attempt = 0
while True:
guess = int(input("Guess the number: "))
#guess = random.randint(1,100)
attempt +=1 # attempt = attempt + 1
if guess ==num:
print(f"Congratulations! You have guessed it correctly in {attempt} attempts.")
total_attempts +=attempt
if min > attempt:
min = attempt
if max < attempt:
max = attempt

if i%pc==0:
print(i//pc,"% Completed")

break
elif guess > num:
print("Sorry, Actual number is smaller")
else: #guess < num:
#pass
print("Sorry, Actual number is greater")

print("Average number of attempts it took: ",total_attempts/n)
print("Maximum attempt:",max," and minimum attempt:",min)

#########################
######### Attempt 2 ##
import random

#print("==> ",num)
l1="="
total_attempts,max,min=0,0,9999
n=250000
pc = n//100
num = random.randint(1, 100)
for i in range(n):

attempt = 0
start, end = 1, 100
while True:
#guess = int(input("Guess the number: "))
guess = random.randint(start,end)
if guess>100 or guess <1:
continue #takes you to the beginning of the loop
attempt +=1 # attempt = attempt + 1
if guess ==num:
#print(f"Congratulations! You have guessed it correctly in {attempt} attempts.")
total_attempts +=attempt
if min > attempt:
min = attempt
if max < attempt:
max = attempt

if i%pc==0:
print(i//pc,"% Completed")

break
elif guess > num:
#print("Sorry, Actual number is smaller")
end=guess-1
else: #guess < num:
#pass
#print("Sorry, Actual number is greater")
start =guess+1

print("Average number of attempts it took: ",total_attempts/n)
print("Maximum attempt:",max," and minimum attempt:",min)
#Strings
str1 = 'Hello'
str2 = "How are you?"
str3 = """I am fine
I am great
I am amazing"""
str4 = '''I am here'''

print(str3)

print("What's your name?")
print('What\'s your name?')
print(str1 + " "+str2)
print(str1 *5)

for i in str1:
print("Hello")
#subset of the string
str6 = "What's your name?"
print(str6[0])
print(str6[2])
print(len(str6))
print(str6[len(str6) - 1]) #last char
print(str6[len(str6) - 2]) #2nd last char
print(str6[- 1]) #last char
print(str6[- 2]) #2nd last char
print(str6[-len(str6)])

print(str6[:3])
print(str6[-3:])

### Methods
print(str6.index("W"))


str1 = 'How are YOU I AM fine'
#they are immutable - you cant edit them
#str1[0] = 'h' #TypeError: 'str' object does not support item assignment
str1 = 'h'+str1[1:]
print(str1)

#functions are independent - print(), len(), input(), int(), str()
#methods - they are functions written within a class
print(str1.isdigit())

val1 = str(5)#input("Enter a number: ")
if val1.isdigit():
val1 = int(val1)
else:
print("Invalid number! setting val1 to zero")
val1 = 0
print(val1)
str2="Hello123"
print(str2.isalnum())
print(str1.upper()) #isupper()
print(str1.lower())
print(str1.title())

print(str1)
print(str1.split("o")) #default split is done on blank space
l1 = str1.split()
str2 = "|| ||".join(l1)
print(str2)

str3 = "Ioooamooofineooohowoooareoooyouooo?"
str4 = " ".join(str3.split("ooo"))
print(str4)
occ = str3.find("ooo")
print("Occurences = ",occ)
occ = str3.count("ooo")
print("Occurences = ",occ)


start,end=0,len(str3)
for i in range(occ):
po = str3.index('ooo',start,end)
print(po,end=" , ")
start = po+1
print()

# LIST
l1 = []
print(type(l1))
print(len(l1))
l1 = [4,"Hello",8.0,True,[2,4,5],"Fine"]
print(type(l1))
print(len(l1))
print(len(l1[4]))
print(l1[4][1])
#list is mutable (unlike str)
l1[0]= 444
print(l1)

print(l1+l1)
print(l1 *3)
for i in l1[4]:
print(i)

#list methods
#Tuple - immutable version list

t1 = (2,2,4,6,8,10) #packing
a,b,c,d,e,f = t1
#print(a,b,c,d,e,f)
print(type(t1))
print(len(t1))
for i in t1:
print(i," - ",t1)

print(t1[-2:])
#t1[2] = 88
print(t1.index(8))
print(t1.count(2))

t1= list(t1)
t1.append(18)
t1=tuple(t1)

a=(5,88,1,77,99)
b=(5,88,1,77,99)
if a>b:
print(a)
elif b>a:
print(b)
else:
print("both are same")

# List - linear ordered collection
l1=[4,6,8,10,12,8,10,12,8,0,8]
l1.append(55) #add element at the end
print(l1)
l1.insert(3,90)
l1.insert(3,70)
print("2. ",l1)

#
element = 12
if element in l1:
l1.remove(12)
else:
print("Element doesnt exist")

if l1.count(element)<1:
print("Element doesnt exist")
print()
print("3. ",l1)
l1.pop(3)

print("4. ",l1)
print(l1.index(8))
s,e=0,len(l1)
for i in range(l1.count(8)):
inx = l1.index(8,s,e)
print(inx,end=", ")
s=inx+1
print()
print("5. ",l1)

#copy
l2 = l1 #deep copy - (giving another name)
l3 = l1.copy() #shallow copy (photocopy)
print("After copy")
print("L1 = ",l1)
print("L2 = ",l2)
print("L3 = ",l3)
l1.append(101)
l2.append(102)
l3.append(103)
print("After editing")
print("L1 = ",l1)
print("L2 = ",l2)
print("L3 = ",l3)

l1.reverse()
print("Reverse: ",l1)

l1.sort()
print("Sort: ",l1)
l1.sort(reverse=True)
print("Sort R: ",l1)

#stack - LIFO: add using append, remove: pop(-1)
#queue - FIFO: append, pop(0)

# 1,5,8,9,7

#add 5 numbers from the user
sum=0
nums=[]
for i in range(5):
num = int(input("Enter the number: "))
sum+=num
nums.append(num)
print("Sum is ",sum)
print("Printing values: ",nums)

#  [[a,b,c],[x,y,z],[p,q,r]]
master_list = []
for i in range(3):
temp=[]
for j in range(3):
m=int(input("Enter the marks: "))
temp.append(m)
master_list.append(temp)

print("Master list: \n",master_list)

'''
Assignment: Exten the above program to find highest marks for each subject and for
each students. Eg if the marks are: [[66, 77, 88], [98, 87, 76], [45, 65, 76]]
Highest for subject 1 = 98
2 = 87
3 = 88
Highest for Student 1 = 88
2 = 98
3 = 76
'''

# Dictionary - key:value
dict1 = {:,:, :,:}printtype
(dict1[])print
"Hello""Hola"

(dict1)
#deep copy
#shallow copy

(dict1.keys())print
(dict1.items())
i dict1.keys(): (i, dict1[i])
a,b dict1.items(): (a,b)
k dict1.items(): (k)
stats = {:[,,,],:[,,,],:[,,,]}for in
if "Virat"
print
dict3.pop()
print
#Sets
#data structures - collections: String, List, Tuple, Dictionary
#SETS - A B M O C - there is no order
# doesnt allow duplicate

set1 = {2,4,6,8}
print(set1)
#union intersection minus
set2 = {6,8,10,12}
#union
print(set1.union(set2))
print(set1 | set2)
#intersection
print(set1.intersection(set2))
print(set1 & set2)

#difference
print(set1.difference(set2))
print(set1 - set2)
print(set2.difference(set1))
print(set2 - set1)

#symmetric difference
#union of 2 differences
print(set1.symmetric_difference(set2))
print(set1 ^ set2)
print(set1, set2)

#update doesnt give new set, it changes the main set
set1.update(set2)

#union -> update
# {intersection_update, difference_update, symm_diff_update}
print(set1, set2)

set3 = {2,4,10,12}

# sets to list and to tuple
set1 = tuple(set1)
list(set1)
set()